In order to use various Refining facilities throughout the galaxy you will need to attain certain levels of Refining Skill. This is used when refining Ore into Refined Ore, and also for refining Refined Ore further into Rare Ores.
Obviously Refinery owners are unprepared to allow unskilled personnel access to their facilities, often from past experience! Increasing Refining Skill beyond these basic levels will also lead to higher outputs per unit consumed in the Refining processes.
To use Orbiting Refineries and Rare Ore Refineries you will need to reach the required level. Further increases will improve the efficiency of the processes.